Page of disasters, from the Tarikh-i Alfi (History of a Thousand Years)

A distinctive feature of this manuscript is the descriptive painting surrounding the blocks of text. At the top of this page is a depiction of the sacred center of Islam, the black stone structure called the Ka‘ba in Mecca that the Prophet Muhammad cleansed of pre-Muslim idols. The Ka‘ba is the endpoint of the Islamic pilgrimage that all Muslims are enjoined to make at least once during their lifetime. Remarkably, Akbar’s name appears on the page of the book held by a devotee, where only prayers or Qur’anic passages should be found. During the time of the caliph who persecuted Shi‘ites, Mecca experienced a drought. Fountains of water now were dry, and pilgrims had to buy water that was carried there

Ink and color on paper


Creator : 


Collection : 

Cleveland Museum of Art

Date :


Rights :



You can copy, modify, distribute and perform the work, even for commercial purposes, all without asking permission.

Creative Commons

You can :

remix /  adapt this work even for commercial purposes, as long as you :

  • give appropriate credit and
  • license new creations under the identical terms.

Creative Commons

You can remix, adapt, and build upon this work, even commercially, as long as you:

  • credit the original creation. 

Creative Commons

Explore More