Nata Ragina: Folio from a ragamala series (Garland of Musical Modes)

Within the ragamala tradition the association of music, text, and image is not always obvious. In this instance, in accord with visualizing music in a heroic mode, a male figure is described in the text as “[g]ripping his sword [as] he moves about the field of battle.” Yet this text also refers to a ragini, making the musical mode feminine, and hence the protagonist should presumably be a woman. While there are examples of this scene with a woman dressed as a warrior, more often, as we see here, it is a male figure. Such contradictions are common within the ragamala genre.

Ink and opaque watercolor on paper


Creator : 

Mohamed (active early 18th century)

Collection : 

Metropolitan Museum of Art

Date :


Rights :



You can copy, modify, distribute and perform the work, even for commercial purposes, all without asking permission.

Creative Commons

You can :

remix /  adapt this work even for commercial purposes, as long as you :

  • give appropriate credit and
  • license new creations under the identical terms.

Creative Commons

You can remix, adapt, and build upon this work, even commercially, as long as you:

  • credit the original creation. 

Creative Commons

Explore More